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Programs for Certification in Assistive Technology
Assistive technology practitioners without appropriate education and relevant experience can pose a danger to the safety of vulnerable assistive technology users. Safety and satisfaction are more likely to result when assistive technology users work with certified assistive technology practitioners. Although certification is not a license to practice, in the future it may be required by employers. Occupational therapists earning certifications as assistive technology practitioners enhance their value to their employers and clients.

California State University at Northridge Assistive Technology Applications Certificate Program

  • This program includes a mix of online and in-person classes. Completion of a project customized to the needs of a client is also required. The program encompasses using assistive technology for a wide range of applications in the home, at school, in the workplace and in the community.

    The focus is on providing existing and new assistive technologies for those needing augmentative and alternative communication, environmental controls, seating and positioning assistance, mobility devices and computer access technology. Clients served will have learning, physical, cognitive and/or sensory disabilities.

    Program participants will learn about the resources supporting assistive technology devices and services. They will be able to implement practical knowledge from the program into everyday situations. In addition, they will be able to work as part of a team through a national assessment framework.

    California State University at Northridge
    18111 Nordhoff St.
    Northridge, CA 91330

Northern Illinois University Assistive Technology Specialist

  • Those who earn the Certificate of Graduate Study Program for Assistive Technology Specialist are able to identify and procure instructional and assistive technologies for students with multiple mild disabilities. They can assess a student’s technology needs and integrate the appropriate technology into their daily routine. In addition, they will have the knowledge and experience to provide consultation to colleagues and families regarding available assistive technologies.

    The curriculum emphasizes working with other professionals as part of the team serving the client, researching emerging technologies, translating research into practice, supporting technology in academic settings, and preparing students, teachers and parents to use instructional and assistive technologies.

    Northern Illinois University
    1425 W. Lincoln Highway
    DeKalb, IL 60115

State University of New York at Buffalo Graduate Program in Assistive Technology

  • The Advanced Graduate Certificate Program in Assistive and Rehabilitation Technology employs a dynamic, problem-based approach to learning through classroom projects, community involvement and exposure to current research literature. The goal of this program is to educate practitioners and researchers striving to improve the independence and quality of life of those with disabilities.

    Course work integrates technology to educational, vocational and independent living environments for persons with disabilities. Those completing the program can work as advanced clinical practitioners and assistive technology researchers.

    Students must complete four three-credit graduate courses oriented to the needs of practitioners and clinical researchers. Two of the courses are part of the core curriculum and two are electives. Courses typically meet one evening per week for a semester.

    University of Buffalo
    401 Kimball Tower
    3435 Main St.
    Buffalo, NY 14214

East Carolina University Graduate Certificate in Assistive Technology

  • This graduate certificate program is for teachers, occupational therapists, speech therapists, recreational therapists, rehabilitation counselors, physical therapists, engineers and other professionals who strive to improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.

    Courses in this program are online and delivered through distance learning. Students take three core courses and one elective for 12 credits. They must also attend several sessions on the campus to acquire hands-on experience using the assistive technology equipment. Those who gain certification will have a broad-based knowledge of assistive technology and the ability to work as part of a collaborative team to serve the client.

    East Carolina University
    East Fifth Street
    Greenville, NC 27858

George Mason University Assistive Technology Certificate

  • This certificate program provides training for practitioners working with family members or colleagues who need assistive technology at school, at home, at work or in the community.

    Requirements include completing courses awarding 15 credits. Two core courses are worth five credits. One of these required courses includes a community project. Electives fulfill the remaining 10 credits.

    Flexible class scheduling makes it possible to complete all course work within a calendar year. One-credit courses last five weeks, two-credit courses last 10 weeks and three-credit courses last a full semester.

    George Mason University
    4085 University Drive
    Fairfax, VA 22030

Challenges in Information Technology Management
The tremendous growth of the Internet has had an enormous impact on the way we do business, educate our children and socially interact. Information technology management has evolved quickly to meet the needs of the public. There are many challenges that surround the management of information in today’s world. Two major problems are the information explosion and “options overload.”

Information Distribution

  • Information is stored on different computers or servers and managed by different information management systems, and some information many not be available to the average user. For example, a research library or archive that subscribes to several information management systems may have access to information that the common user, relying on a free Internet search engine does not. Plus, all search engines do not list all websites.


  • Many mechanisms–search engines in particular–do not have the ability to rank information by relevance. For example, if an individual using a search engine chooses a search term that is too broad, that user may be overwhelmed with millions of results that have nothing to do with the topic. If an individual chooses a topic that is too specific, the corresponding results may be too few.


  • Many websites profile their customers. According to Won Kim of South Korea’s Sungkyunkwan University, they do this by using recommendation engines to match suggestions with data gathered from customers’ order histories and profiles. A customer may visit an e-commerce site in search of a product or service, and the site may make recommendations that are not relevant to the customer’s search. Having a limited list of the products and services the company offers is often much more useful than a list of products that might potentially interest the consumer based on purchase history or profile information, such as education level or income.

Options Overload

  • Many modern electronic devices burden users with “options overload.” Kim notes that the number of functions a device has usually exceeds the number of keys or switches on it. Because of this, many consumers have no idea what keys (or combinations of keys) are to be used for what function without consulting a manual.

How Technology Affects Strategic Management
Technology is a broad term that encompasses many tools and innovative processes that employees use to help a company achieve its goals. A company uses the strategic management process, or planning how to use resources for goal achievement, and specific types of technology to ensure the best use of resources in each operational area.


  • If you look at technology as knowledge, employees are both producers of knowledge and keepers of knowledge. Their knowledge is an asset that managers seek to develop through the strategic management process, including identifying what the organization will do to develop employees through training and professional development. Strategic managers also decide how employee knowledge will be stored electronically in the company knowledge base, such as an information system.

Product Innovations

  • Employees can also affect the attainment of strategic goals by suggesting product innovations. This occurs when employees apply their ideas to fix problems with products or make them better. Employees must receive the right amount of input in the product development process to be utilized effectively in a strategically managed company. For example, managers use nonmanagers as members of cross-functional product development teams in some organizations.

Competitiveness in Fluctuating Markets

  • Technology also refers to information systems that businesses use to maintain their competitive advantage by responding to their business markets. If a company uses an order tracking system to manage customer orders, it must meet the needs of the company in a changing market and in a stable market. Therefore, a strategic manager plans the ordering system to accommodate many more requests than the present level of production so that the system will still serve the company if it experiences massive growth.

New Capabilities

  • A strategically managed organization sets goals for developing new technologies, or new capabilities, to introduce in a target economy, not just product innovations. This relates to expanding the organization’s market position, another goal of strategic management. A firm can create new markets when it introduces new technologies if it believes in front-end investment in technology development.

Business Strategies for Information Technology Management
Information technology management is a process companies use that takes advantage of available information technology resources to create competitive business operations. Business owners and managers may struggle to fully implement information technology into their company because of expense, maintenance and upgrade requirements. However, developing information technology management strategies can help company owners and managers find the best ways to use technology to improve their company’s operations and standing in the business environment.

Corporate Strategy

  • Corporate strategies set the overall direction of a company. Business owners and managers typically determine which economic markets the company will operate in, how the company will acquire resources and how to diversify products in the marketplace. Information technology can help a company achieve these goals, for example, through the use of a website to sell goods or services in markets where the company does not have a presence and by electronically ordering materials from suppliers and using business software to create forecasts for production and sales.

Business Strategy

  • Business strategies focus on one division, department or product line in a business. Owners and managers can use information technology to transfer information between departments and integrate activities to cut eliminate needless activities. Many businesses successfully use information technology to improve their internal business functions. Creating and using information technology-based strategies helps owners and managers set goals and objectives and conduct a performance review process to determine how well the company achieves these objectives.

Functional Strategy

  • Functional strategies use information technology to focus on the management of specific, daily activities that occur in a business. These strategies help improve accounting, finance, human resources or research and development. Information technology—primarily computers, software applications and intranets—allow companies to automate manual processes and improve individual employee output. While this can sound simple in theory, actually putting information technology to work can be complicated, especially for large organizations. Functional strategies attempt to improve a company from the bottom up, using short-term time frames to complete the implementation process.

Business Technology Management Degree Careers
A degree in business technology management focuses on the combination of business management and computer and information systems. It gives students a competitive edge in the constantly changing business and information technology workplace. Graduates are prepared to pursue an array of career options such as positions in business technology management as well as the management analysis field.

Business Technology Manager

  • A business technology manager focuses on both business and computer and technology aspects of an organization. He supervises computer and technology specialists such as systems analysts, software engineers and computer support specialists. He also focuses on business development. A business technology manager must have at least a bachelor’s degree in business technology management or a computer-related field. Many employers prefer candidates with a master’s degree. Many business technology managers obtain professional certification such as a CompTIA certification to remain competitive in the field. As of 2010, Simply Hired states the average annual salary for business technology managers is $75,000.

Computer and Information Systems Manager

  • A computer and information systems manager is responsible for assisting with the application and management of technology for businesses and organizations. She arranges and organizes computer tasks including hardware and software installation and upgrades, system programming and employment of computer networks. She manages computer and information systems tasks by delegating work to other information technology professionals including computer support specialists, computer programmers and computer software engineers. Many computer and information systems managers evaluate the goals and needs of their organizations to develop and implement new information technology. Computer and information systems managers must have at least a bachelor’s degree and related management experience. Many employers prefer candidates with a master’s degree in a technology related field. Simply Hired states as of 2010, computer and information systems managers earn average salaries of $59,000 per year.

Management Analyst

  • A management analyst is responsible for helping organizations stay competitive in the ever-changing business field. She evaluates the structure, effectiveness and revenue of an organization and creates and presents methods for improvement. She obtains relevant information such as inventory reports, job performances and market trends and creates reports to present to higher management professionals. A management analyst needs at least a bachelor’s degree, but some positions require a master’s degree and extensive work experience. As of 2010, as stated by Simply Hired, the average annual salary for management analysts is $63,000.

Cost-Saving Ideas for a Business
Businesses must look to cut costs where possible. Cutting costs increases profit margins and makes the firm more competitive in the marketplace. Firms that are flexible in cutting costs are rewarded with higher stock prices and better performance, assuming those cuts are effective. There are a number of common practices for reducing costs.

Join a Purchasing Consortium

  • Pool your resources with other firms to increase your leverage with suppliers. Each firm creates a list of its needs. Representative purchasing managers from one or several firms then negotiate with suppliers to sign a large contract to provide the best possible price for all of the consortium members. While the big box stores, such as Wal-Mart and Target, have the size necessary to put pressure on their suppliers, your firm may not have the same type of pricing power.


  • Outsourcing focuses your firm’s efforts on its unique specialization while cutting costs at the same time. This is especially true for smaller businesses that must focus all of their energy on production or building new clients. For example, a startup law firm might want to outsource all of its technology and Web presence, as well as its HR work, to an outside consultant or firm. Rather than hiring a full-time professional for these jobs, consultants can work on an as-needed basis, greatly reducing costs. International outsourcing helps reduce costs as employees in less developed countries, such as China, India and the Philippines, can accept lower wages.

Investment in Technology

  • Investment in technology is a classic way to reduce costs. The Internet revolution facilitated tremendous gains in workforce productivity and reduction in cost. Instead of sending physical letters, companies can now send out emails. More recently, businesses started saving costs by consolidating terabytes of data on specialized servers. The investment helps reduce time and costs spent searching for information, as well as the legal liability of dispersed data in different locations.


  • Manage your taxes effectively and be sure to take advantage of the relevant tax exemptions. Keep track of all receipts so they can easily be filed under operating expenses, which are tax-deductible. One effective tax strategy is to issue dividends on January 1st. Taxes on those dividends do not have to be paid for 15 months, so they can be reinvested for a profit during that period.

About Safety Consultant Salaries
As technology increases our standard of living, careers will continue to become increasingly specialized. Safety consultants are a subset of engineers that are employed to deal exclusively with risk-management. Those considering a career as a safety consultant should consider the job description, day to day operations and potential salary. Here’s a look at the career path and salary range of a safety consultant.

What is a safety consultant?

  • A safety consultant is someone hired by an organization to ensure that the policies and practices being utilized fall within acceptable levels of risk. For example, a safety consultant would be required where a company is working with hazardous chemicals to ensure the company is operating within the bounds of the law and that the organization is using best practices to minimize the chance of an accident.

What does a safety consultant do?

  • A safety consultant operates in an advisory or supervisory capacity. Through his use of specialized knowledge, the safety consultant works with an organization to define potential problems, conduct research, obtain data through surveys and studies, and analyzes the final data to suggest an appropriate course of action. In that sense, one might think of a safety consultant as a kind of engineering lawyer.

Median salary

  • While the median salary for a safety consultant will vary depending on the region, the average salary for a safety consultant in the United States is currently $60, 935. The low end of that salary range is $49, 946 and the high end is $83,066. Because the national average falls closer to the low end of the spectrum, prospective safety consultant should expect to earn less than the median.

Salary range over years of experience

  • Of course, one can also expect the salary of a safety consultant to climb in proportion to years of experience. On average, a safety consultant with 1 to 4 years of experience is paid $43,774 annually. An average safety consultant with 5 to 9 years of experience makes $54,082 per year. From 10 to 19 years of experience, one can expect to earn $67,922. And with over two decades of experience, a safety consultant can make $74,122. In general, those looking to enter the field should expect to work for about a decade before making near the national average.


  • The career of safety consultant offers decent room for advancement, with the opportunity to increase one’s salary over $30,000 over two decades of work. Individuals considering the field should realize that salary growth comes at a fairly slow pace, and should not expect to see significant salary increases until they have accumulated at least a decade of experience. But for those willing to stay the course, the career of safety consultant ensures a healthy standard of living.

What Are the Functions of a Hard Drive?
“Hard drive” is a common term used in the computer world for the component in computers and electronics that provides long-term storage of information.

The Hard Drive as Storage

As you use your computer, you create documents and other bits of information to be stored. The hard drive saves these items, alongside the software and files that allow you to easily use and interact with your computer, including the operating system.

When you open an application or document, your computer accesses it from the hard drive. Larger files or programs can take longer to access because the computer needs to retrieve the information from the hard drive before presenting it to you in a useable way.

Measuring Hard Drive Storage

Hard drives come in a variety of storage sizes. As of publication, hard drives are typically measured in gigabytes and terabytes , which are units of measurement for a hard drive’s storage capacity.

For example, 500GB hard drives are common in many modern computers. The average four-minute song on iTunes is approximately 4MB in size. There are 1,000 megabytes in 1 gigabyte. This means that a computer with a 500GB hard drive could store 250,000 songs.


  • Due to the increasing popularity of streaming services and cloud storage, hard drive capacity is less of a concern to the average user purchasing a new computer. Streaming services, such as Spotify, allow users to access extremely large content libraries over Wi-Fi or cellular data without taking up hard drive storage. Cloud storage allows users to store content securely and wirelessly, eliminating the need for large hard drives.

Drive Types

Standard Hard Disk Drive

A hard disk drive consists of circular metal disc-shaped platters which store the computer’s data. An actuator arm runs between the platters, reading data off the hard drive. These platters constantly spin while the computer is on, almost like a vinyl record player. HDDs are the most common and inexpensive form of hard drive.

Solid State Drive

Unlike a hard disk drive, a solid state drive has no moving parts and the data is stored on flash memory chips instead of metallic platters. SSD technology is faster than HDD and less prone to failure since there are no moving parts. Since SSDs are newer technology, they cost more per unit of storage than an HDD.

How to Install Smart House Technology
On the shores of Lake Washington Bill Gates lives in a $113 million smart house where automation controls everything from lighting to security. Today smart house technology begins with PC based starter kits that now sell for less than $500. A smart house relies on networking, programming and automation to move many of our home’s functions to a cyber autonomic nervous system. As just one example, you could push a movie button on a touch pad which would dim your lights, close the drapes, turn on the popcorn maker, check for beer in the fridge, put your phone on voice mail, adjusting heating or air conditioning in unused parts of your home for the duration of the DVD, and then turn on your home theater system. If your children use this function on their own, you could also check the ratings of the DVD’s they watch, Because this technology is efficient, it can also save money. We’ll look at the benefits, and how to apply them.


  1. Let’s start with economy. Last summer, I was working on a television show in Arizona. The entire crew stayed in a home kept in the mid seventies, while the air outside topped 115 degrees. Although signs warned us to turn the thermostat up while we were away, we usually forgot, cooling an empty home for an entire work day. A programable thermostat would have cut our energy consumption dramatically by telling the cooling system when to stop and reset so that while we were actually there we’d still be in comfort. The same programming could be applied to furnaces and hot water heaters. Many offices already use motion sensors to switch on lighting. The same sensors have now migrated into homes and can determine when a home owner goes to bed to turn off the light and adjust the thermostat. Heavy electrical use machines, like washing machines or dryers could be programmed to turn on and work at when electrical rates drop.
  2. Home safety can also be programmed. Security systems can form the networking backbone of many smart houses. In addition to alarms, cameras are now commonly available that you could watch world wide from any PC when you’re away. Many home fires are started by electrical short circuits. In your home today, every device has power fed to it. In a smart house, power is only turned on when the device is needed. If a short circuit occurs, power can be disconnected, the kind of action you’d expect from a simple circuit breaker, but here’s the additional protection. Smart houses also detect gas water leaks and monitor smoke alarms. Power would also be shut down and the appropriate agency summoned. If you look at your home today, you’ll see many DC voltage transformers for radios, fax machines, and more. These wall warts are on all the time wasting power. Smart homes allow for different kinds of current to be fed to different devices only when needed, promoting safety through lower voltages where appropriate while again saving homeowners money.
  3. To begin, analyze your needs. With your family, discuss exactly which automation features you’ll require. If you are building from scratch, your requirements will influence your home’s layout. In a retrofit, you’ll be limited by your house’s floor plan. Get advice from as many people as you can who are now using automation. What did they do wrong? What works best? Decide on whether you plan to do the installation yourself or hire a professional.
  4. Decide on your network. There are four main kinds. Structured wiring is a specialized secure network of multi-conductor cable that distributes data and power for phones, computers, home entertainment systems, and any appliances that can be controlled by a microprocessor – think a remote control or timer. It’s the best choice for new construction but is hard to install in an existing home. Wireless networks are flexible and easy to put in. However they are subject to interference from baby monitors and mobile phones. Power line networks use a home’s existing electrical wires to transmit data. They can be disrupted by power surges and failures. If your system is unencrypted it could be accessed by a neighbor on your same local transformer – so much for home security. Phone line networks control your appliances over your existing phone lines. The devices are multiplexed, assigned different frequencies, but again require hard wire installation, although the wiring is small diamater compared to a fully structured network.
  5. Once you’ve decided on your network, then choose your control devices. or are good sites to browse to see what’s available.
  6. Some smart house technology has already filtered down to common uses. For example, ground fault interrupters are better than simple fuses, because they can instantly detect a potentially fatal shock where electricity could run to ground through a person. These circuits shut down immediately and are now commonly used in bathrooms, kitchens, and outside outlets.

The Average Salary of an IT Consultant
An information technology (IT) consultant advises companies and other organizations about computer systems. He assists with selecting servers and other network items for businesses to link all the computers in a building or company together. She helps select new programs, hardware and software programs to meet a company’s needs and provide solutions to challenges. An IT consultant is responsible for handling any issues or problems that arise in clients’ computer systems, and he performs maintenance to keep such systems in good working order. According to, the average salary of an IT consultant depends largely upon a number of factors, such as her work experience and employer type.

Work Experience

  • An IT consultant’s salary depends largely upon how much work experience she has in the field, according to In August 2009, IT consultants with less than one year of experienced earned between $49,055 and $60,632, while those with one to four years averaged $50,233 to $70,561. The average salary for five to nine years of experience was between $63,250 and $92,567. From years 10 to 19, IT consultants’ average salaries were between $72,721 and $107,227. Once he worked in the field for 20 years or more, an IT consultant earned $83,018 to $119,800.

Employer Type

  • The type of employer an IT consultant worked for also affected her average salary range. Self-employed IT consultants earn the highest maximum salaries, but also report some of the lowest average starting salaries. Hospitals, the federal government and foundations pay some of the highest starting salaries, comparatively. Some of the lowest-paying employers of IT consultants were school districts, state and local governments, and colleges and universities, where workers earned as much as 50 percent less than their peers in other areas.


  • IT consultants can earn certifications with a masterful understanding of the company’s products and services. The consultant’s certification also affected the salary. In 2009, IT consultants with Project Management Professional Certification received the highest maximum salaries at $108,502. In addition, Microsoft and Java certifications tended to result in higher salaries than Service Technician certifications or those offered for Cisco telecommunication products.


  • In August 2009, some consultants specialized in particular areas of information technology, such as UNIX systems, where consultants earned between $61,627 and $100,631. Others focused on specific programming languages, and of these, Oracle tended to result in higher pay rates than other languages like SQL or Java. A specialty in general use of Microsoft products or specifically on Windows or Office led to lower salaries than both UNIX and languages.


  • An IT consultants’ education level also affected average salary ranges in August 2009. The highest-paid consultants held masters of business administration degrees, earning between $64,762 and $100,205, while those with masters of science degrees in computer science earned between $64,952 and $96,177. IT consultants who held bachelors of business management degrees in management of information systems were the lowest paid between $51,206 and $81,597.

Careers in Manufacturing Technology
Manufacturing in the United States and other developed countries has seen jobs go overseas in the past several years due to the availability of low-cost labor, with U.S. manufacturing decreasing from 28 percent in 1962 to less than 9 percent in 2011, according to a study from Deloitte University Press. One of the most stunning examples of hard reality occurred in 2012, when President Obama asked Apple CEO Steve Jobs about bringing manufacturing of the iPhone back to the United States. According to “The New York Times,” Jobs said point blank, “Those jobs aren’t coming back.” A major shift however, is underway, and technology – rather than manual labor – will be driving manufacturing in the years to come and has already begun to create job opportunities both at home and abroad.

Automation and Robotics Drive the Future

  • The trend toward more automation and robotics is one of the major factors that will affect employment positively in the foreseeable future. Manufacturing will shift toward new growth in developed economies like the United States. Advances in automation have shifted the game, outpacing the labor/cost equation with new increases in computer power, sensor technology and control systems. According to a study, “The Automation Evolution,” published by Deloitte University Press, a significant gap for technical talent exists in the U.S., and many states are putting programs in place to encourage education and training in manufacturing technology. North Carolina’s Biotechnology Center has implemented a training development program for bioscience, and Georgia’s Quickstart program is bringing in more industrial investment with customized industrial technology training.

Manufacturing is Technology

  • The question about jobs isn’t whether manufacturing or technology should create jobs – the fact is, manufacturing today is driven by technology, and increasingly, manufacturing jobs require higher education, even on the production floor. In addition to specialized fields like development and operation of robotics equipment, manufacturing engineers and technologists will typically work to develop tools, processes, machines and equipment that are used to produce products. It may be true that it takes fewer people to manufacture products than before, but somebody still has to create and maintain the robots and develop those automated processes. Jobs in technology lie in that area – working to reduce costs. Rather than manufacturing through a labor-intensive process that calls for an offshoring strategy to take advantage of lower labor costs, manufacturing technology today is bringing production back to the United States – but the nature of production is that manufacturing is no longer a low-skilled arena. As low-skilled jobs go by the wayside, new jobs in technical customer service, technical sales and marketing, engineering and operation of CAD/CAM equipment and robotics are on the rise.

Manufacturing Technology Compensation

  • With more jobs than people to fill them, fields relating to manufacturing technology, particularly on the development side, are paying more than ever. Careers in robotics engineering for example, will grow between 3 and 7 percent through 2022, with median salary ranges over $90,000 annually, according to the Department of Labor’s O*Net Online. Manufacturing technology requires a highly strategic approach as well, so careers in consulting are increasingly focused on bringing in consultants with a deep understanding of both manufacturing technology and business management. First-year-out undergraduates in 2014 were getting total compensation packages of over $90,000 from top-flight consultancies like Accenture, Deloitte and Ernst & Young, according to Management Consulted, a popular resource for consulting jobs. The shift toward a more automated manufacturing environment represents a major challenge, especially to established companies, and they continue to need expert guidance from those who understand both the technology and the business end of the process.

The Changing Face of the Factory Floor

  • Today’s factory looks a lot different than it did 30 years ago, and it is more likely to be staffed by college graduates and highly skilled workers than low-skilled entry-level employees. Federally funded high-tech manufacturing hubs in Chicago, Detroit and other industrial centers are already in place, and for the first time since the 1990s, manufacturing jobs are on the increase. Make no mistake though, these new jobs are high-tech and high-skilled. Low-end mass production is a thing of the past. Manufacturing technology, robotics and automated systems will drive manufacturing and provide more jobs in the future.

Metals Used in Hard Drives
Hard drives are used to store computer data. The technology has been steadily improving, with drives reaching sizes of 2 terabytes. Hard drives are constructed with various metals and alloys.

Ferromagnetic Materials

  • Hard drives use magnetically charged metals to save data. The magnetic forces manipulate the metals to represent either a 1 or a 0 in binary, which translates into data.


  • Platters are where the data in a hard drive is stored, and are constructed of aluminum alloy.


  • The spindle which reads the platters by transmitting a magnetic signal is constructed of copper wire.


  • Hard drive enclosures that house all the technology are constructed of aluminum.


  • The screws used to mount the hard drive in a computer are made with steel.

A List of Careers in Medical Technology
Medical technology careers give you the chance to be involved in healing, either directly or indirectly. Among other things, you can work with patients, machines, patient information systems and computers. This field is expected to offer excellent growth opportunities, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and for many of them you can train in only a year or two. Here are some examples.

Nuclear Medicine Technologist

  • A nuclear medicine technologist operates diagnostic imaging machines and gives patients radiopharmaceuticals to help diagnose and treat disease. You should be able to put people at ease in what can be a scary medical situation, while performing body image scans and monitoring each patient’s response. Nuclear medicine technologists work in hospitals, clinics, imaging centers, nursing homes and medical centers.

Surgical Technologist

  • Your career as a surgical technologist may take you into hospitals, clinics and surgery centers. You will set up the surgical suites for operations, ensuring that the proper sterile instruments and equipment are in place, along with antibacterial washes and other necessary supplies. You will prepare the patient for surgery by washing, shaving and disinfecting the operation site. You will also assist in surgery and bring patients to the recovery area when the surgery is done. Good people skills and coordination are a must, as you may be preparing and transporting frightened patients for surgery.

EEG Technologist

  • A career as an EEG technologist may be for you if you’re interested in how the brain works. An EEG technologist operates an electroencephalograph (EEG) machine to help diagnose strokes, brain tumors and other brain disorders. You may work in a hospital or an EEG lab. You will take a patient’s medical history, apply electrodes, record EEG readings and review the information, all while reassuring the patient and making him feel at ease.

How to Watch Video From a Flash Drive on a DVD Player
As technology continues to advance, you don’t even need to burn home movies to disc to watch them on your television. High-end DVD player models (and all Blu-ray disc players) feature USB inputs that can be used to house USB flash drives filled with movies. You can then access the files through your DVD player’s main menu and watch them on your TV screen. You just need to follow the proper directions.


  1. Look in the instruction manual for your DVD player to see what type of video files it supports. DVD players won’t just support any file format–most support .MKV or .AVI files, among a few other popular formats. Be sure to look in the “Technical Specifications” listing in your DVD player’s instruction manual to see what formats it will support before potentially wasting your time.
  2. Put your USB flash drive into a USB port on your computer.
  3. Open your USB flash drive by clicking on “My Computer” and then clicking on the icon for your flash drive.
  4. Drag the appropriately formatted video files into this window. They will now be transferred to your USB flash drive.
  5. Remove the USB flash drive from your computer.
  6. Put your USB flash drive into an open USB port on your DVD player.
  7. Use your DVD player’s remote control to navigate to the “USB Flash Drive” menu. Select the file you want to play from the list by highlighting it and pressing the “Enter” or “Play” buttons on the remote. The file will now play on your TV screen.

Electronics & Communications Engineering Technology Jobs

Electronics and communications engineers create many of the world’s technological advances. Broadcast systems, telephone technology, aviation advances, automotive design and navigation systems are only a few of the developments that electronics and communications engineers are responsible for. These engineers develop, test, create and maintain the devices they are responsible for.

Communications and electronics engineers are responsible for many of our technological advances.
Chris Sattlberger/Photodisc/Getty Images

Electronics and communications engineers create many of the world’s technological advances. Broadcast systems, telephone technology, aviation advances, automotive design and navigation systems are only a few of the developments that electronics and communications engineers are responsible for. These engineers develop, test, create and maintain the devices they are responsible for.

Scientific Research and Development Jobs

  • Engineers involved with scientific research and development are responsible for creating new products and innovations. Testing the design of these products and the feasibility of their use is another element of research and development. Researchers may also be required to test target audience reception of the product.

Aerospace Manufacturing Jobs

  • Aerospace manufacturing engineers are responsible for creating the parts for airplanes, satellites and ground control systems. Engineers design the parts, supervise their creation and may even be asked to repair broken parts. Maintenance and supervision of ground controls are positions available for electronics and communications engineers.

Architectural Design Jobs

  • Communications and electronics engineers are often employed in architectural design. Designing the structure of the building and creating an ergonomic design are components of architectural design. An engineer may also be hired specifically to design the communications and electronics necessary for the building. Researching the appropriate technology, ideal location and technical requirements necessary for the building are all possible responsibilities for an engineer.

Federal Government Jobs

  • The federal government hires electronics and communications engineers to fill a variety of roles. Repairing the government’s airplanes and helicopters, customizing planes and maintaining military technology are all possible roles for a federal government employee. The federal government also hires engineers to work on unmanned aerial vehicles. Positions to maintain and develop communications systems are also available. As of 2010, the federal government hires over 17,000 electronics and communications engineers.

The Impact of Technology on Management Theories
Management theory, developed over the past century, describes how companies plan, organize, staff, lead and control their employees. Effective managers get people to accomplish goals and use materials wisely to achieve profitability and maintain a competitive advantage. Advances in technology have enabled standardization, automation and globalization at a rate that early management theorists probably never thought possible. Complex information technology solutions, including hardware and software, allow businesses to create, store and retrieve data from locations throughout the world. In businesses large and small, all departments, including marketing, sales, finance and manufacturing, now typically depend on the company’s IT infrastructure to manage the operations and functions necessary to complete business processes.

Impact on Scientific Theory

  • In the early 1900s, Frederick Taylor, an American mechanical engineer, described how the scientific method could be applied to managing workers. By simplifying and optimizing the way tasks were performed, managers could direct workers to complete tasks in one consistent way. By improving industrial efficiency and reducing human error, managers improve productivity and increase profits. Through the introduction of technology, such as computer hardware and software, tasks formerly performed by humans are now done by specialized machines, reducing monotony, safety concerns and variation.

Impact on Organization Theory

  • Also in the early 1900s, Henri Fayol, a French mining engineer, developed a series of 14 principles that described how to manage a company. He theorized that there were six functions of management: forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. The impact of technology on his management theories extends to every department in most companies, as computer hardware and software applications have replaced paper-based systems of organizing and directing work.

Impact on Contingency Theory

  • The contingency theory of management states that there is no one best of managing. Leadership style that proves effective in one situation may be inappropriate in others. Success often depends on a variety of situational factors, including the capabilities of the manager’s subordinates and the information the manager has available to make an informed decision. With the use of mobile computing, mobile phones and other always-available technology, managers have more information at their disposal than ever before. In fact, too much information may make it difficult to make a decision. Managers need to filter the news, data and other content they receive in print, audio and video formats in order to function effectively.

Impact on Systems Approach

  • Using a systems approach to management allows managers to view their company as a complex system consisting of interdependent departments. By aligning employee performance goals to strategic goals, all personnel work to solve the same problems. Technology enables all parts of an organization to communicate easily. Using telecommunication, email, social networking tools such as wikis, blogs and forums, managers and employees collaborate across the globe to solve company problems. Enterprise software and hardware systems link departments so the entire entity functions as cohesive whole.

How Much Money Does a Consultant Make?
Two common types of consultants include management and IT, or information technology, consultants. Both types of consultants work with major corporations, small businesses, government offices, hospitals and other business establishments. Management consultants usually help companies solve labor, payroll, operational and product issues, such as plant efficiency. IT consultants help companies run their computer networks more efficiently. Both management and IT consultants usually earn annual salaries. Additionally, these professionals may receive bonuses and profit sharing incentives.

Average Annual Salary

  • Management consultants earn annual salaries between $63,690 and $115,194, while IT consultants earn $56,228 to $88,772 per year, according to 2011 data from Including incentive payments, management consultants earn total incomes of $73,089 to $176,411 per year, while IT consultants can earn up to $59,304 to $103,418 annually. data does not reflect actual ranges but rather the top quarter and bottom three-quarters of salaries.

Years of Experience

  • Both management and IT consultants can expect significant salary increases as they gain experience in their respective fields. For example, management consultants with less than one year of experience earn annual salaries of $55,415 to $91,957, per With five to nine years of experience, management consultants can expect to earn salaries of $76,996 to $113,693 per year. And those with 20 or more years of experience earn annual salaries of $91,844 to $158,805.

    IT consultants with less than one year of experience earn annual salaries of $45,852 to $60,612. With five to nine years of experience, they can expect to earn salaries of $61,156 to $88,136 per year. Those with at least 20 years of experience earn annual salaries between $79,476 and $118,337.

Employer Type

  • Management and IT consultants’ salaries can also vary according to their types of employers. For example, management consultants that are self-employed earn some of the highest annual salaries at $75,000 to $156,339, per Those working for private practice firms also earn relatively high salaries at $66,693 to $120,372 per year.

    IT consultants also earn some of their highest salaries when self-employed at $40,000 to $122,449. Those working as contract employees also earn relatively high salaries at $50,868 to $98,722. However, contract employees do not usually receive benefits. Non-profit organizations also pay their IT consultants relatively high annual salaries at $48,788 to $90,757.

Salary by City

  • Management consultants earn some of their highest annual salaries in Chicago at $62,590 to $123,067, according to Those in San Francisco and New York City also earn comparatively high salaries at $74,757 to $121,253 and $67,936 to $120,920 per year, respectively.

    IT consultants earn some of their highest annual salaries in New York City at $59,553 to $96,046. These professionals also earn relatively high salaries in Los Angeles at $59,973 to $91,128 per year. Additionally, those in Houston can expect to earn salaries between $56,373 and $90,718 per year.

How to Monitor Technology Trends
Technology changes at a rapid pace, and new technologies and offerings come to market in a rapid manner. Keeping up to date on what trends are both emerging and fading away is the first step in understanding how technology evolves and advances. There are steps you can take to keep apprised of the trends currently impacting technology and those on the horizon.


  1. Make a list of the technology that impacts your daily life. Use this list as a base guideline to learn about technology and the base technologies that are being used today. For example, a smart phone uses technologies such as semiconductors, microprocessors, media storage, LCD screen technology, broadband access and Bluetooth. Make notes regarding which technologies are most beneficial to you and which ones could use enhancements.
  2. Read articles, white papers, vendor-issued press releases and product specifications for vendors that you are aware of. For example, read press releases and product announcement for companies such as Research In Motion, Google and Verizon if you are still working off of your smart phone technology list. Bookmark pages and use the terms and products mentioned to further search the Internet for additional information, reviews and comparisons of the products.
  3. Read articles and information on magazine websites devoted to technology such as PC World Magazine, Computer World Magazine and the Technology News section of The New York Times. Visit the websites on a weekly basis to scan through current news and events to monitor which topics and trends are receiving the most publicity. Sign up for all news feeds and email notifications for technology topics.
  4. Read blogs written by technology-specific writers. Find the blogs through the magazine websites or by performing a search on the writer’s name. Bookmark the blogs and sign up through the blog directly for notifications of new postings and news feeds for blogs that are of interest to you.
  5. Bookmark and visit social media sites, making sure to note the feeds associated for technology and technology-specific areas. Search through groups, individual contributors and company-produced feeds to further keep track of new and timely information.
  6. Keep a running list of terms, topics and products that continually appear and get mentioned in all of the information portals and mediums you are tracking. Take notes and print out information to further examine and study the trends that you see developing.

The Impact of Information Technology on Jobs
Information technology has significantly advanced the way businesses do business and the way people do their jobs all over the world. Data, information and research are available at the speed of light, and workers everywhere have access to it. Be it on the Internet, on a company intranet or on a mobile phone or some other type of electronic device, the technology is farther along now from than ever before, with new advances progressing daily.

Before Information TechnologyBefore current technology came to the forefront, we had about seven basic modes of communication: telephone, telegraph wire, television, radio, mail, fax machines, eventually the pager (or beeper) and the grapevine—over the fence. Many of those technologies were barely old enough to be fully retired when telephonic mobility, the Internet and intranets came into play. Radio signals and wires, plus telephonic cabling, gave us the ability to transport and transfer tons of information faster than the Pony Express, the wiretaps or even physical travel could take it; now those tons of information have been broken into bytes of information that move even faster.

The Information AgeThe advent of the mobility, people being attached to their information sources 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, is still a relatively recent occurrence. With the progress that is being made, there is no telling what is in store in the future, but we are already more than several light years away from where we were just 20 years ago. On the job, workers are able to access the information they need within 2 seconds instead of 2 to 7 days. These technologies have all but obliterated the need for post offices or even the expense of overnight mail due to highly sensitive documents that can be encrypted (electronically scrambled) and digitally signed. Also, due to increased security measures, it is virtually impossible for outsiders to access sensitive or private company information. Hacking and computer viruses seem to be on a huge downward spiral.

At-Work Technologies: SoftwareFrom agriculture to zoos, thousands of different types of technology are at work and in place to help workers get their jobs done faster and easier and without having to haul down heavy boxes for what used to amount to hours of visual inspection looking for documents or files. Software technologies have also made it possible for people to work from home or to work remotely just about anywhere and also to do their work in a much more efficient and independent manner. For instance, in the garment industry, preproduction (or CAD, computer-assisted design) software packages are used to make digitized dress and clothing patterns. The patterns are then marked up with computerized fabrics that cut the time and wasted materials for physical sampling by about 30 percent.

At-Work Technologies: Hardware and PeripheralsIn all environments, no matter what the industry, software technology would be nothing without the tools that make it all possible. These tools include computers and monitors, printers, scanners, digital cameras, web cameras, video cams, handhelds (personal digital assistants or PDAs), printers, digitized faxes, mobile phones and hard line phones, copy machines, duplicators, intrusion alarms and monitoring equipment and microphones.

Specifics on Available TechnologiesInformation technology on the job is available for many different types of uses and applications, web based or off line. Some of these technologies include e-Commerce (the ability to shop, keep inventory, keep track of returns and deal with customer service issues); e-Learning (the ability to go to school and earn a certificate or degree without having to leave home); day trading (the ability to self-purchase stock and stock options without having to physically call a broker); voice-over-Internet protocol (VoIP–the ability to plan meetings and see, talk, hear and speak with people thousands of miles away and all over the world by using inexpensive hardware and software); and also by the use of wireless communications such as cell phones and PDAs.

Information Technology Jobs in the Music Industry
The ways in which music is produced and marketed have changed significantly as technology has advanced, and many music careers now involve information technology. The broad category of information technology consists of any job in which technology is used to create, store or transfer information, reports “Entrepreneur” magazine. Tech-savvy individuals who wish to work in the music industry can pursue one of many music-related information technology paths.


  • Mixers use technology to create music. These specialists take individual musical tracks and combine them using mixing boards or computer software to create a full-bodied song. Individuals who work in this position often work in close contact with the artists. They are responsible for the sound quality and overall appeal of the music they work with, as it is often their mixing that separates a nice song from a potential hit.

Music Video Editor

  • Music video editors combine the music with visual components to create an engaging and attractive multimedia product. Individuals who edit music videos use their information technology skills to manipulate audio and video files and combine them to create a musical product. Although music video editors do not often have complete creative control of the finished product, they do have some power in shaping the overall look of the video creation.

Digital Marketer

  • The way in which music makers are presented to the public has changed greatly over the years. Today much marketing is done in the digital setting, with artists and record labels setting up online advertisements to inform and entice listeners. Digital marketers work to create these online advertisements and inform web users of artists and their music. These information technology professionals create ads for musical artists and work to either place or sell the advertisements to ensure they reach web users.

Artist Website Designer

  • Website designers often build a digital persona for a musical artist, as many potential listeners turn to the web when gathering information about an artist they may potentially follow. A well-organized and attractive website presents the artist as a professional and may entice would-be listeners to pick up or download the artist’s album.